Database Management Basics

Database management is a method of coordinating the information that supports a company’s business operations. It involves storing data, distributing it to application programs and users, modifying it as necessary and monitoring the changes in the data and preventing it from getting damaged due to unexpected failure. It is part of the informational infrastructure of a company that aids in decision-making and corporate growth as well as compliance with laws like the GDPR and the California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with other companies developed the first database systems. They evolved into information management systems (IMS), which allowed large amounts data to be stored and retrieved for a variety of reasons. From calculating inventory to aiding complex financial accounting functions and human resource functions.

A database is a set of tables that are organized according to a particular scheme, such as one-to-many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records and allows cross-references between tables. Each table contains a number of fields, also known as attributes, that represent facts about the data entities. The most well-known type of database that is currently in use is a relational model created by E. F. “Ted” Codd at IBM in the 1970s. The concept is based on normalizing data to make it easier to use. It also makes it simpler to update data by avoiding the need to change different sections of the database.

Most DBMSs support multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level is concerned with cost, scalability and other operational issues including the layout of the physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It can include a combination of different external views (based on different data models) and may also include virtual tables which are generated using generic data to improve performance.

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